Tooling and Lubrication

Investigation of Surface Topography Effects on Metal Flow of Aluminum and Steel During Hot Compression
Andrew R. Matcha, B.S., Marquette University, 2019. This FIERF sponsored project investigated how friction and metal flow was affected by the die surface topography (roughness and lay) under a range of forging conditions. The results showed that both parameters are influential with respect to planar flow behavior.
Webinar: Characterization of a High Entropy Alloy Welding Process for Application to Forging Dies 01/25/2019

Darryl Hammock, Weld Mold; Michael Wall and Marcus Young, University of North Texas; Rob Mayer and Andy Spires, Queen City Forge.  Industry partners and researchers review the Forging Industry Educational and Research Foundation funded research and update results of shop trials. 

Laboratory Testing to Identify Permanent PVD Coatings to Minimize Lubricants Use During Forging - Literature Review

 Stephen Midson, Andy Koraenyi-Both and Kester Clarke, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, December 22, 2017

Exploration of New Forging Materials: High Entropy Alloys

Nathan Ley, Jennifer Scozzari, and Marcus L. Young, University of North Texas, 2016

The primary objective of this project is to explore high entropy alloys (HEAs) as a potential coating to extend the lifetime of H13 steel die heads.

Improving Forging Tooling Performance and Durability by Additive Manufacturing Cladding and Repair

Professor David Schwam, Case Western Reserve University

Evaluation of Forging Die Pre-Heating Methods

Michigan Technological University - Advanced Metalworks Enterprise
Natalie Pohlman, Brittany Hoffman, Christopher Mayle, Austin DePottey; Advisor Thomas Wood
A couple of major problems caused by non-uniform die heating are die cracking and heat checking. The five primary methods that are currently used to preheat forging dies are subject of this study to determine temperature uniformity and proper heating methods and times.

The Tempering Parameter for Evaluating Softening of Hot and Warm Forging Die Steels

E. Virtanen 1, C.J. Tyne 1, B.S. Levy 2, G. Brada 3
1 Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Colorado School of Mines; 2 B.S. Levy Consultants Ltd.; 3 A. Finkl & Sons.

Provided to FIA Members by Colorado School of Mines Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center.

Adaptable Dies To Minimize Distortion In Non-Axisymmetric Extrusions

W.A. Gordon 1, C.J. Tyne 2, Y.H. Moon
1 Stanley Black & Decker; 2 Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Colorado School of Mines; 3 Engineering Research for Net Shape and Die Manufacturing Pusan National University, Korea

Provided to FIA Members by Colorado School of Mines Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center.

Yield Strength of Hot Forging Die Steels at Working Temperatures

S. Giskaas1, P. Wolfram1, K.O. Findley1, B.S. Levy2, and C.J. Van Tyne1*
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 80401 USA
B.S. Levy Consultants, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA

Provided to FIA Members by Colorado School of Mines Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center.

Die Steel Tempering Parameter and The Relationship to In-Process Forging Die Hardness

Guy Brada, Chief Metallurgist, A. Finkl & Sons Co.

Factors to Consider When Working to Reduce Cost of Warm And Hot Forging Tools

Dilmar Ribeiro, PhD
AAM American Axle Manufacturing

Best Practices For Pre-Coatings For Warm and Hot Forging

Dale Hutchinson Pemco International Forging Lubrication Specialist

Modeling of Water and Lubricant Sprays

Dr. Chun Liu, The Ohio State University, FIERF Forging Fellow Doctorial Dissertation, 2007. Modeling of water and lubricant sprays has significant impact on the performance of spraying systems, die life and the proper forming of the part. This research is concerned with developing a more complete understanding of spray cooling effects in hot forging process by modeling the temperature of tool, modeling of droplet spread and evaporation on the tool surface, modeling of average cooling rate and film formation in lubricant sprays, and process design to achieve desired cooling rate.

Mechanical Properties of Hot Forging Die Steels at Working

P. Wolfram, S. Giskaas and C.J. Van Tyne
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
B.S. Levy
B.S. Levy Consultants Ltd

Experimental compressive yield strengths were determine for three die steels (FX, 2714 and

A Method for Measuring the Hardness and Elastic Modulus of the Surface Layer on Hot Forging Dies Using a Nano Indention

P. Mencin, FIERF Professor C.J. Van Tyne, Colorado School of Mines, B.S. Levy, B.S. Levy Consultants, Ltd. This FIERF funded project indicates nano hardness testing can provide reliable results for analyzing the surface layer of hot forging dies.

Application of Subtractive Rapid Prototyping (SRP) for RSP Tooling
Pratik E. Nikam and John Frater, FIERF Magnet School Professor, Cleveland State University. Demonstrates that Subtractive Rapid Prototyping (SRP) is a powerful tool to reduce the time required to fabricate a forging die by the Rapid Solidification Process (RSP).
Application of Advanced Die Materials and Lubrication Systems for Reduction of Die Wear in Warm & Hot Forging

Professor Taylan Altan, Professor and Director Center for Precision Forming, The Ohio State University. This FIERF funded project's objective are improvement of tool life in hot and warm forging through application of advanced die materials and coatings and development of guidelines for selecting the optimum die material and lubrication systems for a given application. The project team includes numerous FIA Member forging producers, lubrication, die and simulation suppliers.

Development and Demonstration of Advanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies: A Technology Transfer and Commercialization Case Study

The Rapid Solidification Process was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, through funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program.

Estimation of Die Stresses and Wear in Warm Forging of Steel Pinion Shafts

Adam Groseclose, Changhyok Choi, Jose Luis Gonzalez-Mendez, Thomas Yelich and Taylan Altan, Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, The Ohio State University, 2009. Report summarizes the results of the study on warm forging die wear funded by the Forging Industry Educational and Research Foundation.

Experimental and Numerical Approaches for Improving Rolling Contact Fatigue of Bearing Steel Through Enhanced Compressive Residual Stress
Dr. Xiaomin Cheng, The Ohio State University, Doctorial Dissertation, 2007. A hard turning model was developed to evaluate the influence of machining parameters and tool edge geometry on the temperature distribution, cutting force and residual stress profile. Shot peening process was also investigated for its efficacy in imparting compressive sub-surface residual stress in hardened surfaces. Single and multiple shot models were also developed to study the effect of shot peening process parameters, workpiece material, surface conditions and the interaction between individual shots on the distribution of the compressive residual stress field.
Failure Analysis of H13 Gear Blank Forging Dies

John C. Bergeron, Erin Burns, John Bushie, Haakon Sandberg, Abbey Vanden Heuvel, Michigan Technological University; Walker Forge, Inc.

Laser Texturing of Die Surfaces to Improve Lubrication
Dr. Yuanjie Wu, The Ohio State University, FIERF Forging Fellow Doctorial Dissertation, 2008. This study investigates reduction of interface friction through laser texturing of die surfaces. The theory is that coarse and fine microgrooves, created using pulsed laser, entrap lubricants hence improving boundary lubrication.
Physiothermodynamics of Lubricant Application to Hot Die Surfaces The Rapid Solidification Process (RSP): Its Theoretical Basis, and the Benefits It Offers the Manufacturing Industry

Yaw Apatu, Eric Dittmar, Abdul Elepele, Robert Chmielewski, Magnet School Professor John Frater, Cleveland State University. 2003 Forging Achievement Award Student Paper.

Report on Material and Surface Engineering of Dies for Precision Forging

Sailesh Babu, Dilmar Ribeiro, FIERF Magnet School Professor Rajiv Shivpuri, The Ohio State University. Report prepared for Precision Forging Consortium, Ohio Aerospace Institute and National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, June, 1999. Report provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-knowledge of die materials and surface engineering for forging dies.

Selection of Die Materials and Surface Treatments for Increasing Die Life in Hot and Warm Forging

Taylan Altan, The Ohio State University, Presented at 2011 Forging Industry Technical Conference.

Tempering Behavior of Hot Forging Die Steels

E. Virtanen and FIERF Professor C.J. Van Tyne, Colorado School of Mines, B.S. Levy, B.S. Levy Consultants Ltd., 2008 FIERF/Finkl Challenge Grant project to develop experimental data of the hardness of die steels as a function of tempering time and temperature.

Forging Lubricants Technology Status Quo and Best Practices

Jim Wiederholt
Research and Development Manager
Fuchs Lubricants Co.