Summary Session

Summary Session

The Summary Session provided an opportunity for members of the individual work groups to share the results of their sessions with the other workshop participants. A member from each group summarized the group's discussions of the strategic targets, technological barriers, and research needs and priorities. The findings and recommendations of the groups are described in detail in Chapters 3, 4, and 5. Following the group presentations, an open discussion was held to elicit general comments about the workshop approach and explore the next steps in the roadmap process.

Common Research Themes

A number of common themes emerged from the three work groups. Most of these themes can be related in some way to the development of "smart forging systems" that integrate product design and manufacturing and incorporate sophisticated software and equipment for automated, self-adjusting, on-line process monitoring and control. To develop smart systems, critical research is required to improve the industry's fundamental understanding of its materials and equipment and its ability to accurately model, simulate, monitor, and control process technologies. Common research themes included the following:

  • materials - understanding/properties/performance
  • standards development
  • understanding of equipment performance
  • rapid prototyping/tooling
  • process automation
  • lubricants and coatings
  • process modeling and simulation
  • forging technology innovations
  • cooperative R&D
  • improved education
  • supplied materials


Exhibit 6-1 shows some of the R&D needs identified by the work groups that relate to these common themes. A fundamental underpinning of future work is the development of validated, standardized data on materials properties and equipment performance. Basic materials-properties data (e.g., flow stress) for all forging materials is an essential input to simulation models for metal flow, die stress, microstructure prediction, and so forth. Basic data on equipment performance is needed to develop an understanding of exactly how and where energy and materials are used (and misused), and this data is another key input to process modeling and simulation. The development of standards for data exchange and equipment design is another common industry theme. There are strong and logical relationships among gaining a thorough understanding of materials and equipment; developing better materials-properties and equipment-performance data for models; creating better models and validating them to accurately simulate actual forging conditions; and developing software that can optimize forging design, manufacturing, and cost parameters. Each of these activities builds on technological advances in the others to help improve tooling, materials utilization, energy efficiency, environmental performance, and quality and productivity in the forging industry.

Exhibit 6-1. Common Themes in Forging Industry R&D Priorities
Theme Tooling and Materials Energy and Environment Quality and Productivity
Materials - Understanding/Properties/ Performance Create centralized data bank

Develop a flow stress database for use in model simulations

Characterize materials used in forging dies in die materials

Fully understand physical/metallurgical effects of temperature, pressure, and abrasion on tool materials

Quantify effects of process variation on finished forging

Develop multi-attribute, heterogeneous die that eliminates lubrication

Develop an energy/environmental profile for the forging industry (baseline data)

Investigate the effect on materials properties of heat treating directly after forging

Develop physical-flow characteristics (e.g., flow stress) for all specific materials

Develop improved die materials (longer life, low wear, low cost, and self-lubricating)

Generate real materials property data

Determine material properties as a function of temperature

Perform research to relate materials properties to simulations

Standards   Develop measurement standards

Develop design standards for equipment used in forging process

Create standardized format for exchanging data on all forging processes

Develop benchmarks for forging processes

Understanding of Equipment Performance Understand/measure the dynamic conditions of the die/part interface

Investigate effects of different types of scale on die surface

Develop capability to measure energy or force in dies Determine existing equipment capabilities and pursue development of more preferred equipment
Rapid Prototyping/Tooling Develop die design optimization software for 24-hour tooling   Develop techniques for rapid prototyping with engineering properties
Process Automation      
Real-Time Measurement Techniques Develop real-time, non-destructive measurement systems

Develop non-destructive measurement of the real-time temperature profile of the billet during induction heating

Develop technology to conduct in-process inspection of hot parts

Develop new, quick, temperature-measurement devices

Develop real-time, hot-dimensional measuring capabilities
Sensors and Controls Develop robust sensors and controls for use in control of forging equipment Develop improved process monitoring techniques to reduce energy consumption Increase government support for advanced process monitoring and control equipment with cross-industry applications

Develop vibratory signature analysis equipment for the forging industry

Develop advanced sensors to measure high temperatures, vibration, acoustics, and strain

Develop closed-loop process sensors and controls for hot forging

Lubricants and Coatings Develop coating and cladding of die materials Develop environmentally safe lubricants

Conduct R&D on surface treatment for die and tooling to produce lower friction and higher resistance

Develop advanced bar/billet pre-coating to prevent oxidation (coatings to substitute for lubricants)

Develop a zero-emissivity coating

Develop improved billet coatings to improve oxidation resistance

Eliminate graphite in warm forging operations

Investigate the roles of lubricants and improve their properties

Process Modeling and Simulation      
Three Dimensional Modeling Develop coupled 3-D models of forging process (die and piece) on massively parallel machines   Develop 3-D simulation technology for the deformation process
Modeling to Predict Microstructure Improve material models to predict microstructure Develop flow simulations for microstructure predictions  
Simulation of Actual Operating Conditions Scale up process models to simulate actual conditions

Develop validated models for establishing friction in the forging system

Develop capability to simulate processes under production conditions  
Integration of Process Design and Manufacturing Software Develop computer systems that can reverse- and forward-engineer

Develop forging-specific CAD-CAM system

  Develop technologies to integrate process and design

Develop feature-based design software for forging

Cost Modeling Develop models that can handle parametric studies for cost optimization   Create forging industry cost models to determine value of investment
Forging Technology Innovations   Develop alternatives to traditional thermomechanical processing (e.g., magnetic fields, low- or no-gravity methods)

Develop slide-in, slide-out die that is totally enclosed

Develop efficient rapid heating systems for different sized billets and shapes

Conduct research to develop new types of forging equipment (e.g., hydroforming, zero-gravity)

Develop next-generation die manufacturing technology

Develop quicker methods for heating bigger ingots

Cooperative R&D Undertake joint company vendor research projects Conduct industry/

regulator collaborations in solving environmental problems

Establish a dedicated R&D center to address technical needs

Establish industry-directed consortium to issue calls for proposals

Improved Education   Develop more intense, structured education and training opportunities

Develop apprenticeship programs

Conduct a nationwide program to interest students in the forging and basic manufacturing industries
Supplied Materials Require more consistent materials from suppliers Improve the quality of starting stock, melt sources Develop technology to internally inspect the ingot prior to shipment to the forger

The development of low-cost, rapid tooling/prototyping technology is considered essential to reducing forging lead times and creating the capability to cost-effectively produce smaller runs to exact customer specifications. The need for increased process automation is uniformly agreed upon by the industry, and will require advances in process monitoring and control technology. On-line process monitoring can be improved through the development of techniques for performing real-time, non-destructive measurements and inspections of forgings (hot and cold) during the manufacturing process. Sensors are needed that are robust, long-lived, low-cost, self-calibrating, and interactive.

Lubricants and coatings emerged as one of the most prominent materials-related needs within all three work groups. In general, the groups agreed that the ultimate goal is to eliminate the use of lubricants entirely by developing stronger, longer-life, lower-wearing, self-lubricating die materials. However, improved lubricants and coatings are also needed to improve the environmental and operating performance of these important protective materials.

Advanced forging operations will rely on an array of new technology for process modeling and simulation. Industry priorities include three-dimensional simulation capabilities, models that can predict microstructure, simulation of actual operating conditions, integration of product/process design and manufacturing software, and models that can optimize for cost-savings. Better simulation tools will enable rapid prototyping, minimize the trial and error currently involved in making dies, and improve the overall productivity and environmental performance of the forging process.

The need for innovations in several process technologies also emerged as common themes. These included improved dies and die-manufacturing technologies; alternatives to traditional thermomechanical forging processes such as hydroforming, low- or no-gravity methods, and magnetic fields; and more rapid heating systems for different shapes and sizes of input metal.

The institutional issues of improved education and cooperative R&D were raised by two or more of the groups as critically important to the forging industry's ability to meet the goals established in its vision. A high priority was placed on strengthening the educational curricula in high schools, vocational schools, colleges, and universities. The industry can help develop educational/training modules or offer apprenticeship programs to interest more students in pursuing careers in the forging industry. Improved worker-training programs are also needed to enhance the skills of existing workers and help them keep pace with changes in technology. Equally important is the need for the industry to work collaboratively with its suppliers, customers, and government research programs in order to leverage limited research budgets and access widely scattered technical expertise and research facilities. Improved communication and collaboration between the industry and its suppliers can help to improve the quality of metal supplied to forgers, a commonly identified research need.

Finally, each of the groups summarized its discussions of the strategic targets established for the industry in the Forging Industry Vision. Exhibit 6-2 shows the revised strategic targets for the Forging Industry Technology Roadmap that evolved from these discussions.

Closing Remarks

The workshop concluded with an opportunity for each participant to offer comments related to the conduct and results of the workshop. Most of the remarks received were positive with regard to the overall effort, indicating that the assembly of such a diverse group of representatives from the forging industry served to highlight their commonalities rather than their differences. Given the diverse nature of the forging industry and the different technical focus of the three work groups, many were surprised and encouraged by the number of common themes that emerged.

A number of participants, including several members of the FIA Technical Committee, noted that the results should help focus the industry's efforts in specific areas and serve as a concrete starting point for the future work of the Committee. Recognizing that far more needs were identified than there are resources to accomplish them, many participants remarked that it will be important to establish and focus on priorities. A few people urged the industry to get started immediately on one or two projects that can achieve results fairly quickly. This will help test the collaborative process and demonstrate to high-level corporate management that this is an important process that can produce real benefits for the industry.

The need for precaution was expressed a number of times. One participant expressed concern that the perspective of customers is not adequately reflected in the results of the workshop. Customers need to be involved to make sure that there is market pull for the goals and needs that the industry has identified. It was noted that while many forging companies were represented at the workshop, none of the biggest forging companies were in attendance. These large companies have unique technical resources and should be encouraged to participate. A few people felt that the scope of thinking was too limited to consider radical, new, "leapfrog" technologies that do not exist today but which could change the nature of the forging industry. It was observed that the industry needs to be aware of other processes and continually evaluate how to stay competitive. Another individual suggested that the Internet could be more effectively used for communication among forging companies and with outside organizations. One person felt that some of the research needs identified in the Energy and Environment work group may be mutually exclusive--doing one may prevent accomplishing another.

Participants expressed support for a number of the common research themes, including increased process automation that moves the industry towards a high-tech mode of operation, better process controls, improved forging education programs, and collaboration. The need for collaboration among forging companies, suppliers, customers, universities, and national laboratories was also frequently referred to in the closing remarks. One person commented on the importance of maintaining dialogues and interactions with the national labs. Another noted that since universities are an important technical resource with the potential to develop creative solutions to the industry's problems, it will be important to share the forging roadmap with professors and students. One participant offered general advice on collaborative efforts, suggesting that ideally, team size should be limited to between five and seven people, and members should include materials providers, equipment manufacturers, systems integrators, academia, and laboratories. He also suggested that projects be tightly funded in order to conserve resources and encourage creative, efficient approaches to problem-solving.

A majority of the participants were enthusiastic about the workshop as a whole and expressed the hope that the positive energy it generated will carry forward into the implementation stages. The workshop results provide a focus, and it is important now to organize for action to accomplish the goals that are laid out in the vision and roadmap. DOE can help to disseminate the technology roadmap to others involved in Industries of the Future activities and to counterparts in other Federal agencies. Industry must also get involved in using the roadmap as a communication tool to identify sources of research funding and potential research partners. Finally, it was brought up by several people that the roadmap is by nature a dynamic document that will change as more information becomes available and as the technology and market needs of the forging industry changes. This first roadmap will undoubtedly have gaps and omissions, but it is a starting point that can be expanded on and revised in future years.
 

 

array ( '#markup' => '

Summary Session

The Summary Session provided an opportunity for members of the individual work groups to share the results of their sessions with the other workshop participants. A member from each group summarized the group\'s discussions of the strategic targets, technological barriers, and research needs and priorities. The findings and recommendations of the groups are described in detail in Chapters 3, 4, and 5. Following the group presentations, an open discussion was held to elicit general comments about the workshop approach and explore the next steps in the roadmap process.

Common Research Themes

A number of common themes emerged from the three work groups. Most of these themes can be related in some way to the development of "smart forging systems" that integrate product design and manufacturing and incorporate sophisticated software and equipment for automated, self-adjusting, on-line process monitoring and control. To develop smart systems, critical research is required to improve the industry\'s fundamental understanding of its materials and equipment and its ability to accurately model, simulate, monitor, and control process technologies. Common research themes included the following:

  • materials - understanding/properties/performance
  • standards development
  • understanding of equipment performance
  • rapid prototyping/tooling
  • process automation
  • lubricants and coatings
  • process modeling and simulation
  • forging technology innovations
  • cooperative R&D
  • improved education
  • supplied materials


Exhibit 6-1 shows some of the R&D needs identified by the work groups that relate to these common themes. A fundamental underpinning of future work is the development of validated, standardized data on materials properties and equipment performance. Basic materials-properties data (e.g., flow stress) for all forging materials is an essential input to simulation models for metal flow, die stress, microstructure prediction, and so forth. Basic data on equipment performance is needed to develop an understanding of exactly how and where energy and materials are used (and misused), and this data is another key input to process modeling and simulation. The development of standards for data exchange and equipment design is another common industry theme. There are strong and logical relationships among gaining a thorough understanding of materials and equipment; developing better materials-properties and equipment-performance data for models; creating better models and validating them to accurately simulate actual forging conditions; and developing software that can optimize forging design, manufacturing, and cost parameters. Each of these activities builds on technological advances in the others to help improve tooling, materials utilization, energy efficiency, environmental performance, and quality and productivity in the forging industry.

Exhibit 6-1. Common Themes in Forging Industry R&D Priorities
Theme Tooling and Materials Energy and Environment Quality and Productivity
Materials - Understanding/Properties/ Performance Create centralized data bank

Develop a flow stress database for use in model simulations

Characterize materials used in forging dies in die materials

Fully understand physical/metallurgical effects of temperature, pressure, and abrasion on tool materials

Quantify effects of process variation on finished forging

Develop multi-attribute, heterogeneous die that eliminates lubrication

Develop an energy/environmental profile for the forging industry (baseline data)

Investigate the effect on materials properties of heat treating directly after forging

Develop physical-flow characteristics (e.g., flow stress) for all specific materials

Develop improved die materials (longer life, low wear, low cost, and self-lubricating)

Generate real materials property data

Determine material properties as a function of temperature

Perform research to relate materials properties to simulations

Standards   Develop measurement standards

Develop design standards for equipment used in forging process

Create standardized format for exchanging data on all forging processes

Develop benchmarks for forging processes

Understanding of Equipment Performance Understand/measure the dynamic conditions of the die/part interface

Investigate effects of different types of scale on die surface

Develop capability to measure energy or force in dies Determine existing equipment capabilities and pursue development of more preferred equipment
Rapid Prototyping/Tooling Develop die design optimization software for 24-hour tooling   Develop techniques for rapid prototyping with engineering properties
Process Automation      
Real-Time Measurement Techniques Develop real-time, non-destructive measurement systems

Develop non-destructive measurement of the real-time temperature profile of the billet during induction heating

Develop technology to conduct in-process inspection of hot parts

Develop new, quick, temperature-measurement devices

Develop real-time, hot-dimensional measuring capabilities
Sensors and Controls Develop robust sensors and controls for use in control of forging equipment Develop improved process monitoring techniques to reduce energy consumption Increase government support for advanced process monitoring and control equipment with cross-industry applications

Develop vibratory signature analysis equipment for the forging industry

Develop advanced sensors to measure high temperatures, vibration, acoustics, and strain

Develop closed-loop process sensors and controls for hot forging

Lubricants and Coatings Develop coating and cladding of die materials Develop environmentally safe lubricants

Conduct R&D on surface treatment for die and tooling to produce lower friction and higher resistance

Develop advanced bar/billet pre-coating to prevent oxidation (coatings to substitute for lubricants)

Develop a zero-emissivity coating

Develop improved billet coatings to improve oxidation resistance

Eliminate graphite in warm forging operations

Investigate the roles of lubricants and improve their properties

Process Modeling and Simulation      
Three Dimensional Modeling Develop coupled 3-D models of forging process (die and piece) on massively parallel machines   Develop 3-D simulation technology for the deformation process
Modeling to Predict Microstructure Improve material models to predict microstructure Develop flow simulations for microstructure predictions  
Simulation of Actual Operating Conditions Scale up process models to simulate actual conditions

Develop validated models for establishing friction in the forging system

Develop capability to simulate processes under production conditions  
Integration of Process Design and Manufacturing Software Develop computer systems that can reverse- and forward-engineer

Develop forging-specific CAD-CAM system

  Develop technologies to integrate process and design

Develop feature-based design software for forging

Cost Modeling Develop models that can handle parametric studies for cost optimization   Create forging industry cost models to determine value of investment
Forging Technology Innovations   Develop alternatives to traditional thermomechanical processing (e.g., magnetic fields, low- or no-gravity methods)

Develop slide-in, slide-out die that is totally enclosed

Develop efficient rapid heating systems for different sized billets and shapes

Conduct research to develop new types of forging equipment (e.g., hydroforming, zero-gravity)

Develop next-generation die manufacturing technology

Develop quicker methods for heating bigger ingots

Cooperative R&D Undertake joint company vendor research projects Conduct industry/

regulator collaborations in solving environmental problems

Establish a dedicated R&D center to address technical needs

Establish industry-directed consortium to issue calls for proposals

Improved Education   Develop more intense, structured education and training opportunities

Develop apprenticeship programs

Conduct a nationwide program to interest students in the forging and basic manufacturing industries
Supplied Materials Require more consistent materials from suppliers Improve the quality of starting stock, melt sources Develop technology to internally inspect the ingot prior to shipment to the forger

The development of low-cost, rapid tooling/prototyping technology is considered essential to reducing forging lead times and creating the capability to cost-effectively produce smaller runs to exact customer specifications. The need for increased process automation is uniformly agreed upon by the industry, and will require advances in process monitoring and control technology. On-line process monitoring can be improved through the development of techniques for performing real-time, non-destructive measurements and inspections of forgings (hot and cold) during the manufacturing process. Sensors are needed that are robust, long-lived, low-cost, self-calibrating, and interactive.

Lubricants and coatings emerged as one of the most prominent materials-related needs within all three work groups. In general, the groups agreed that the ultimate goal is to eliminate the use of lubricants entirely by developing stronger, longer-life, lower-wearing, self-lubricating die materials. However, improved lubricants and coatings are also needed to improve the environmental and operating performance of these important protective materials.

Advanced forging operations will rely on an array of new technology for process modeling and simulation. Industry priorities include three-dimensional simulation capabilities, models that can predict microstructure, simulation of actual operating conditions, integration of product/process design and manufacturing software, and models that can optimize for cost-savings. Better simulation tools will enable rapid prototyping, minimize the trial and error currently involved in making dies, and improve the overall productivity and environmental performance of the forging process.

The need for innovations in several process technologies also emerged as common themes. These included improved dies and die-manufacturing technologies; alternatives to traditional thermomechanical forging processes such as hydroforming, low- or no-gravity methods, and magnetic fields; and more rapid heating systems for different shapes and sizes of input metal.

The institutional issues of improved education and cooperative R&D were raised by two or more of the groups as critically important to the forging industry\'s ability to meet the goals established in its vision. A high priority was placed on strengthening the educational curricula in high schools, vocational schools, colleges, and universities. The industry can help develop educational/training modules or offer apprenticeship programs to interest more students in pursuing careers in the forging industry. Improved worker-training programs are also needed to enhance the skills of existing workers and help them keep pace with changes in technology. Equally important is the need for the industry to work collaboratively with its suppliers, customers, and government research programs in order to leverage limited research budgets and access widely scattered technical expertise and research facilities. Improved communication and collaboration between the industry and its suppliers can help to improve the quality of metal supplied to forgers, a commonly identified research need.

Finally, each of the groups summarized its discussions of the strategic targets established for the industry in the Forging Industry Vision. Exhibit 6-2 shows the revised strategic targets for the Forging Industry Technology Roadmap that evolved from these discussions.

Closing Remarks

The workshop concluded with an opportunity for each participant to offer comments related to the conduct and results of the workshop. Most of the remarks received were positive with regard to the overall effort, indicating that the assembly of such a diverse group of representatives from the forging industry served to highlight their commonalities rather than their differences. Given the diverse nature of the forging industry and the different technical focus of the three work groups, many were surprised and encouraged by the number of common themes that emerged.

A number of participants, including several members of the FIA Technical Committee, noted that the results should help focus the industry\'s efforts in specific areas and serve as a concrete starting point for the future work of the Committee. Recognizing that far more needs were identified than there are resources to accomplish them, many participants remarked that it will be important to establish and focus on priorities. A few people urged the industry to get started immediately on one or two projects that can achieve results fairly quickly. This will help test the collaborative process and demonstrate to high-level corporate management that this is an important process that can produce real benefits for the industry.

The need for precaution was expressed a number of times. One participant expressed concern that the perspective of customers is not adequately reflected in the results of the workshop. Customers need to be involved to make sure that there is market pull for the goals and needs that the industry has identified. It was noted that while many forging companies were represented at the workshop, none of the biggest forging companies were in attendance. These large companies have unique technical resources and should be encouraged to participate. A few people felt that the scope of thinking was too limited to consider radical, new, "leapfrog" technologies that do not exist today but which could change the nature of the forging industry. It was observed that the industry needs to be aware of other processes and continually evaluate how to stay competitive. Another individual suggested that the Internet could be more effectively used for communication among forging companies and with outside organizations. One person felt that some of the research needs identified in the Energy and Environment work group may be mutually exclusive--doing one may prevent accomplishing another.

Participants expressed support for a number of the common research themes, including increased process automation that moves the industry towards a high-tech mode of operation, better process controls, improved forging education programs, and collaboration. The need for collaboration among forging companies, suppliers, customers, universities, and national laboratories was also frequently referred to in the closing remarks. One person commented on the importance of maintaining dialogues and interactions with the national labs. Another noted that since universities are an important technical resource with the potential to develop creative solutions to the industry\'s problems, it will be important to share the forging roadmap with professors and students. One participant offered general advice on collaborative efforts, suggesting that ideally, team size should be limited to between five and seven people, and members should include materials providers, equipment manufacturers, systems integrators, academia, and laboratories. He also suggested that projects be tightly funded in order to conserve resources and encourage creative, efficient approaches to problem-solving.

A majority of the participants were enthusiastic about the workshop as a whole and expressed the hope that the positive energy it generated will carry forward into the implementation stages. The workshop results provide a focus, and it is important now to organize for action to accomplish the goals that are laid out in the vision and roadmap. DOE can help to disseminate the technology roadmap to others involved in Industries of the Future activities and to counterparts in other Federal agencies. Industry must also get involved in using the roadmap as a communication tool to identify sources of research funding and potential research partners. Finally, it was brought up by several people that the roadmap is by nature a dynamic document that will change as more information becomes available and as the technology and market needs of the forging industry changes. This first roadmap will undoubtedly have gaps and omissions, but it is a starting point that can be expanded on and revised in future years.
 

 

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Summary Session

The Summary Session provided an opportunity for members of the individual work groups to share the results of their sessions with the other workshop participants. A member from each group summarized the group\'s discussions of the strategic targets, technological barriers, and research needs and priorities. The findings and recommendations of the groups are described in detail in Chapters 3, 4, and 5. Following the group presentations, an open discussion was held to elicit general comments about the workshop approach and explore the next steps in the roadmap process.

Common Research Themes

A number of common themes emerged from the three work groups. Most of these themes can be related in some way to the development of "smart forging systems" that integrate product design and manufacturing and incorporate sophisticated software and equipment for automated, self-adjusting, on-line process monitoring and control. To develop smart systems, critical research is required to improve the industry\'s fundamental understanding of its materials and equipment and its ability to accurately model, simulate, monitor, and control process technologies. Common research themes included the following:

  • materials - understanding/properties/performance
  • standards development
  • understanding of equipment performance
  • rapid prototyping/tooling
  • process automation
  • lubricants and coatings
  • process modeling and simulation
  • forging technology innovations
  • cooperative R&D
  • improved education
  • supplied materials


Exhibit 6-1 shows some of the R&D needs identified by the work groups that relate to these common themes. A fundamental underpinning of future work is the development of validated, standardized data on materials properties and equipment performance. Basic materials-properties data (e.g., flow stress) for all forging materials is an essential input to simulation models for metal flow, die stress, microstructure prediction, and so forth. Basic data on equipment performance is needed to develop an understanding of exactly how and where energy and materials are used (and misused), and this data is another key input to process modeling and simulation. The development of standards for data exchange and equipment design is another common industry theme. There are strong and logical relationships among gaining a thorough understanding of materials and equipment; developing better materials-properties and equipment-performance data for models; creating better models and validating them to accurately simulate actual forging conditions; and developing software that can optimize forging design, manufacturing, and cost parameters. Each of these activities builds on technological advances in the others to help improve tooling, materials utilization, energy efficiency, environmental performance, and quality and productivity in the forging industry.

Exhibit 6-1. Common Themes in Forging Industry R&D Priorities
Theme Tooling and Materials Energy and Environment Quality and Productivity
Materials - Understanding/Properties/ Performance Create centralized data bank

Develop a flow stress database for use in model simulations

Characterize materials used in forging dies in die materials

Fully understand physical/metallurgical effects of temperature, pressure, and abrasion on tool materials

Quantify effects of process variation on finished forging

Develop multi-attribute, heterogeneous die that eliminates lubrication

Develop an energy/environmental profile for the forging industry (baseline data)

Investigate the effect on materials properties of heat treating directly after forging

Develop physical-flow characteristics (e.g., flow stress) for all specific materials

Develop improved die materials (longer life, low wear, low cost, and self-lubricating)

Generate real materials property data

Determine material properties as a function of temperature

Perform research to relate materials properties to simulations

Standards   Develop measurement standards

Develop design standards for equipment used in forging process

Create standardized format for exchanging data on all forging processes

Develop benchmarks for forging processes

Understanding of Equipment Performance Understand/measure the dynamic conditions of the die/part interface

Investigate effects of different types of scale on die surface

Develop capability to measure energy or force in dies Determine existing equipment capabilities and pursue development of more preferred equipment
Rapid Prototyping/Tooling Develop die design optimization software for 24-hour tooling   Develop techniques for rapid prototyping with engineering properties
Process Automation      
Real-Time Measurement Techniques Develop real-time, non-destructive measurement systems

Develop non-destructive measurement of the real-time temperature profile of the billet during induction heating

Develop technology to conduct in-process inspection of hot parts

Develop new, quick, temperature-measurement devices

Develop real-time, hot-dimensional measuring capabilities
Sensors and Controls Develop robust sensors and controls for use in control of forging equipment Develop improved process monitoring techniques to reduce energy consumption Increase government support for advanced process monitoring and control equipment with cross-industry applications

Develop vibratory signature analysis equipment for the forging industry

Develop advanced sensors to measure high temperatures, vibration, acoustics, and strain

Develop closed-loop process sensors and controls for hot forging

Lubricants and Coatings Develop coating and cladding of die materials Develop environmentally safe lubricants

Conduct R&D on surface treatment for die and tooling to produce lower friction and higher resistance

Develop advanced bar/billet pre-coating to prevent oxidation (coatings to substitute for lubricants)

Develop a zero-emissivity coating

Develop improved billet coatings to improve oxidation resistance

Eliminate graphite in warm forging operations

Investigate the roles of lubricants and improve their properties

Process Modeling and Simulation      
Three Dimensional Modeling Develop coupled 3-D models of forging process (die and piece) on massively parallel machines   Develop 3-D simulation technology for the deformation process
Modeling to Predict Microstructure Improve material models to predict microstructure Develop flow simulations for microstructure predictions  
Simulation of Actual Operating Conditions Scale up process models to simulate actual conditions

Develop validated models for establishing friction in the forging system

Develop capability to simulate processes under production conditions  
Integration of Process Design and Manufacturing Software Develop computer systems that can reverse- and forward-engineer

Develop forging-specific CAD-CAM system

  Develop technologies to integrate process and design

Develop feature-based design software for forging

Cost Modeling Develop models that can handle parametric studies for cost optimization   Create forging industry cost models to determine value of investment
Forging Technology Innovations   Develop alternatives to traditional thermomechanical processing (e.g., magnetic fields, low- or no-gravity methods)

Develop slide-in, slide-out die that is totally enclosed

Develop efficient rapid heating systems for different sized billets and shapes

Conduct research to develop new types of forging equipment (e.g., hydroforming, zero-gravity)

Develop next-generation die manufacturing technology

Develop quicker methods for heating bigger ingots

Cooperative R&D Undertake joint company vendor research projects Conduct industry/

regulator collaborations in solving environmental problems

Establish a dedicated R&D center to address technical needs

Establish industry-directed consortium to issue calls for proposals

Improved Education   Develop more intense, structured education and training opportunities

Develop apprenticeship programs

Conduct a nationwide program to interest students in the forging and basic manufacturing industries
Supplied Materials Require more consistent materials from suppliers Improve the quality of starting stock, melt sources Develop technology to internally inspect the ingot prior to shipment to the forger

The development of low-cost, rapid tooling/prototyping technology is considered essential to reducing forging lead times and creating the capability to cost-effectively produce smaller runs to exact customer specifications. The need for increased process automation is uniformly agreed upon by the industry, and will require advances in process monitoring and control technology. On-line process monitoring can be improved through the development of techniques for performing real-time, non-destructive measurements and inspections of forgings (hot and cold) during the manufacturing process. Sensors are needed that are robust, long-lived, low-cost, self-calibrating, and interactive.

Lubricants and coatings emerged as one of the most prominent materials-related needs within all three work groups. In general, the groups agreed that the ultimate goal is to eliminate the use of lubricants entirely by developing stronger, longer-life, lower-wearing, self-lubricating die materials. However, improved lubricants and coatings are also needed to improve the environmental and operating performance of these important protective materials.

Advanced forging operations will rely on an array of new technology for process modeling and simulation. Industry priorities include three-dimensional simulation capabilities, models that can predict microstructure, simulation of actual operating conditions, integration of product/process design and manufacturing software, and models that can optimize for cost-savings. Better simulation tools will enable rapid prototyping, minimize the trial and error currently involved in making dies, and improve the overall productivity and environmental performance of the forging process.

The need for innovations in several process technologies also emerged as common themes. These included improved dies and die-manufacturing technologies; alternatives to traditional thermomechanical forging processes such as hydroforming, low- or no-gravity methods, and magnetic fields; and more rapid heating systems for different shapes and sizes of input metal.

The institutional issues of improved education and cooperative R&D were raised by two or more of the groups as critically important to the forging industry\'s ability to meet the goals established in its vision. A high priority was placed on strengthening the educational curricula in high schools, vocational schools, colleges, and universities. The industry can help develop educational/training modules or offer apprenticeship programs to interest more students in pursuing careers in the forging industry. Improved worker-training programs are also needed to enhance the skills of existing workers and help them keep pace with changes in technology. Equally important is the need for the industry to work collaboratively with its suppliers, customers, and government research programs in order to leverage limited research budgets and access widely scattered technical expertise and research facilities. Improved communication and collaboration between the industry and its suppliers can help to improve the quality of metal supplied to forgers, a commonly identified research need.

Finally, each of the groups summarized its discussions of the strategic targets established for the industry in the Forging Industry Vision. Exhibit 6-2 shows the revised strategic targets for the Forging Industry Technology Roadmap that evolved from these discussions.

Closing Remarks

The workshop concluded with an opportunity for each participant to offer comments related to the conduct and results of the workshop. Most of the remarks received were positive with regard to the overall effort, indicating that the assembly of such a diverse group of representatives from the forging industry served to highlight their commonalities rather than their differences. Given the diverse nature of the forging industry and the different technical focus of the three work groups, many were surprised and encouraged by the number of common themes that emerged.

A number of participants, including several members of the FIA Technical Committee, noted that the results should help focus the industry\'s efforts in specific areas and serve as a concrete starting point for the future work of the Committee. Recognizing that far more needs were identified than there are resources to accomplish them, many participants remarked that it will be important to establish and focus on priorities. A few people urged the industry to get started immediately on one or two projects that can achieve results fairly quickly. This will help test the collaborative process and demonstrate to high-level corporate management that this is an important process that can produce real benefits for the industry.

The need for precaution was expressed a number of times. One participant expressed concern that the perspective of customers is not adequately reflected in the results of the workshop. Customers need to be involved to make sure that there is market pull for the goals and needs that the industry has identified. It was noted that while many forging companies were represented at the workshop, none of the biggest forging companies were in attendance. These large companies have unique technical resources and should be encouraged to participate. A few people felt that the scope of thinking was too limited to consider radical, new, "leapfrog" technologies that do not exist today but which could change the nature of the forging industry. It was observed that the industry needs to be aware of other processes and continually evaluate how to stay competitive. Another individual suggested that the Internet could be more effectively used for communication among forging companies and with outside organizations. One person felt that some of the research needs identified in the Energy and Environment work group may be mutually exclusive--doing one may prevent accomplishing another.

Participants expressed support for a number of the common research themes, including increased process automation that moves the industry towards a high-tech mode of operation, better process controls, improved forging education programs, and collaboration. The need for collaboration among forging companies, suppliers, customers, universities, and national laboratories was also frequently referred to in the closing remarks. One person commented on the importance of maintaining dialogues and interactions with the national labs. Another noted that since universities are an important technical resource with the potential to develop creative solutions to the industry\'s problems, it will be important to share the forging roadmap with professors and students. One participant offered general advice on collaborative efforts, suggesting that ideally, team size should be limited to between five and seven people, and members should include materials providers, equipment manufacturers, systems integrators, academia, and laboratories. He also suggested that projects be tightly funded in order to conserve resources and encourage creative, efficient approaches to problem-solving.

A majority of the participants were enthusiastic about the workshop as a whole and expressed the hope that the positive energy it generated will carry forward into the implementation stages. The workshop results provide a focus, and it is important now to organize for action to accomplish the goals that are laid out in the vision and roadmap. DOE can help to disseminate the technology roadmap to others involved in Industries of the Future activities and to counterparts in other Federal agencies. Industry must also get involved in using the roadmap as a communication tool to identify sources of research funding and potential research partners. Finally, it was brought up by several people that the roadmap is by nature a dynamic document that will change as more information becomes available and as the technology and market needs of the forging industry changes. This first roadmap will undoubtedly have gaps and omissions, but it is a starting point that can be expanded on and revised in future years.
 

 

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