4.1.1 Carbon Steels

Carbon steels are most often specified. The broad range of grades gives the designer wide latitude in selecting one with the optimum combination of mechanical properties, forgeability and minimum cost.

By definition, carbon steel is iron combined with carbon varying from 0.06% to 1.5%. Carbon steels may also contain maximum amounts of manganese of 1.65% and/or silicon of 0.60%. The more common grades are between 1006 and 1095 with nominal 0.06% to 0.95% carbon respectively. There are some maximum limits to the residual elements, typically less than a total 0.80% for such elements as Cr, Mo, V, Cu, and Ni.

Free-machining grades of carbon steels that contain sulphur (1100 series), lead (12Lxx series) or sulphur/phosphorous (1200 series) are not as readily forged as the carbon steel counterparts. The additions produce controlled amounts of inclusions in the steel that assist chip breakage during machining, but the inclusions can also cause the steel to crack during forging, particularly during hot or cold upsetting.

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Carbon steels are most often specified. The broad range of grades gives the designer wide latitude in selecting one with the optimum combination of mechanical properties, forgeability and minimum cost.

By definition, carbon steel is iron combined with carbon varying from 0.06% to 1.5%. Carbon steels may also contain maximum amounts of manganese of 1.65% and/or silicon of 0.60%. The more common grades are between 1006 and 1095 with nominal 0.06% to 0.95% carbon respectively. There are some maximum limits to the residual elements, typically less than a total 0.80% for such elements as Cr, Mo, V, Cu, and Ni.

Free-machining grades of carbon steels that contain sulphur (1100 series), lead (12Lxx series) or sulphur/phosphorous (1200 series) are not as readily forged as the carbon steel counterparts. The additions produce controlled amounts of inclusions in the steel that assist chip breakage during machining, but the inclusions can also cause the steel to crack during forging, particularly during hot or cold upsetting.

Return to Table of Contents

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Carbon steels are most often specified. The broad range of grades gives the designer wide latitude in selecting one with the optimum combination of mechanical properties, forgeability and minimum cost.

By definition, carbon steel is iron combined with carbon varying from 0.06% to 1.5%. Carbon steels may also contain maximum amounts of manganese of 1.65% and/or silicon of 0.60%. The more common grades are between 1006 and 1095 with nominal 0.06% to 0.95% carbon respectively. There are some maximum limits to the residual elements, typically less than a total 0.80% for such elements as Cr, Mo, V, Cu, and Ni.

Free-machining grades of carbon steels that contain sulphur (1100 series), lead (12Lxx series) or sulphur/phosphorous (1200 series) are not as readily forged as the carbon steel counterparts. The additions produce controlled amounts of inclusions in the steel that assist chip breakage during machining, but the inclusions can also cause the steel to crack during forging, particularly during hot or cold upsetting.

Return to Table of Contents

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