3.3.2 Tooling Costs

3.3.2 Tooling Costs

Tooling preparations cost quoted by forgers generally includes the cost of designing and manufacturing the tools used to produce the forging. It also includes the cost of special gauges and fixtures. Tooling cost varies with a number of factors, the most important being the forging process.

Open Die Open die forgings are made with standard "V", swage or flat dies. Tooling cost is not significant.

Impression Die Tooling cost is usually significant in impression die forgings. It includes one or more impressions (preform, blocker, finisher or other impressions), sometimes preforming rolls, edger or fullering impressions, and usually trim dies. The cost of manufacturing the impression dies is driven by the size and complexity of the forging. Trim die cost is driven by the size of the forging and the complexity of the geometry. Press tooling can differ significantly from hammer tooling due to features such as knockouts, strippers and master tool holders.

Die wear necessitates periodic maintenance, resinks, and ultimately replacement of the dies.

Die wear varies with the alloy being forged with the harder alloys causing faster die wear. This tendency can be reduced by proper adjustments to product design.

Rolled Rings Tooling cost, including manufacturing, maintenance and replacement for rolled rings, is low compared with the impression die process. There is virtually no tooling cost for plain rectangular section rings. However, shaped rollers are required to roll rings that have inside or outside contours. Rolls for forming inside contours (mandrel) cost substantially less than rolls for outside contours (main rolls). Profiled ring rolling also requires dies for the preforming operation. They are less costly than those used for the impression die process, but must be recognized.

Cold Forging Tooling cost for cold forgings is typically five to ten times as much as for equivalent hot impression die forgings when also considering the automation that typically accompanies cold forging processes. But tool life in cold forging is much greater. In many cases, a sequence of operations is used requiring several dies, so that quantities are typically very high. Tool cost can be reduced when similar parts can share common tool details.

 

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3.3.2 Tooling Costs

Tooling preparations cost quoted by forgers generally includes the cost of designing and manufacturing the tools used to produce the forging. It also includes the cost of special gauges and fixtures. Tooling cost varies with a number of factors, the most important being the forging process.

Open Die Open die forgings are made with standard "V", swage or flat dies. Tooling cost is not significant.

Impression Die Tooling cost is usually significant in impression die forgings. It includes one or more impressions (preform, blocker, finisher or other impressions), sometimes preforming rolls, edger or fullering impressions, and usually trim dies. The cost of manufacturing the impression dies is driven by the size and complexity of the forging. Trim die cost is driven by the size of the forging and the complexity of the geometry. Press tooling can differ significantly from hammer tooling due to features such as knockouts, strippers and master tool holders.

Die wear necessitates periodic maintenance, resinks, and ultimately replacement of the dies.

Die wear varies with the alloy being forged with the harder alloys causing faster die wear. This tendency can be reduced by proper adjustments to product design.

Rolled Rings Tooling cost, including manufacturing, maintenance and replacement for rolled rings, is low compared with the impression die process. There is virtually no tooling cost for plain rectangular section rings. However, shaped rollers are required to roll rings that have inside or outside contours. Rolls for forming inside contours (mandrel) cost substantially less than rolls for outside contours (main rolls). Profiled ring rolling also requires dies for the preforming operation. They are less costly than those used for the impression die process, but must be recognized.

Cold Forging Tooling cost for cold forgings is typically five to ten times as much as for equivalent hot impression die forgings when also considering the automation that typically accompanies cold forging processes. But tool life in cold forging is much greater. In many cases, a sequence of operations is used requiring several dies, so that quantities are typically very high. Tool cost can be reduced when similar parts can share common tool details.

 

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3.3.2 Tooling Costs

Tooling preparations cost quoted by forgers generally includes the cost of designing and manufacturing the tools used to produce the forging. It also includes the cost of special gauges and fixtures. Tooling cost varies with a number of factors, the most important being the forging process.

Open Die Open die forgings are made with standard "V", swage or flat dies. Tooling cost is not significant.

Impression Die Tooling cost is usually significant in impression die forgings. It includes one or more impressions (preform, blocker, finisher or other impressions), sometimes preforming rolls, edger or fullering impressions, and usually trim dies. The cost of manufacturing the impression dies is driven by the size and complexity of the forging. Trim die cost is driven by the size of the forging and the complexity of the geometry. Press tooling can differ significantly from hammer tooling due to features such as knockouts, strippers and master tool holders.

Die wear necessitates periodic maintenance, resinks, and ultimately replacement of the dies.

Die wear varies with the alloy being forged with the harder alloys causing faster die wear. This tendency can be reduced by proper adjustments to product design.

Rolled Rings Tooling cost, including manufacturing, maintenance and replacement for rolled rings, is low compared with the impression die process. There is virtually no tooling cost for plain rectangular section rings. However, shaped rollers are required to roll rings that have inside or outside contours. Rolls for forming inside contours (mandrel) cost substantially less than rolls for outside contours (main rolls). Profiled ring rolling also requires dies for the preforming operation. They are less costly than those used for the impression die process, but must be recognized.

Cold Forging Tooling cost for cold forgings is typically five to ten times as much as for equivalent hot impression die forgings when also considering the automation that typically accompanies cold forging processes. But tool life in cold forging is much greater. In many cases, a sequence of operations is used requiring several dies, so that quantities are typically very high. Tool cost can be reduced when similar parts can share common tool details.

 

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