3.2.5 Accidental or Unanticipated Conditions

High ductility, impact toughness and fracture toughness give forgings a distinct advantage over products made by alternate methods. These properties are essential wherever safety is a concern. Current product liability actions are reinforcing the need to anticipate the unexpected, such as impact loads. They are especially important where failure can threaten the safety of the user. In those cases, the design must be such that any failure is progressive, and not sudden.

For example, wheel spindles for automobiles and trucks are subject to unpredictable damage from impacts. If a brittle fracture occurs, the operator will lose control of the vehicle, potentially resulting in a serious accident. A forged spindle, which has a high level of impact toughness, fracture toughness and high ductility at all anticipated operating temperatures, may undergo plastic deformation, but will remain partially operative to give reasonable insurance against loss of control.

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High ductility, impact toughness and fracture toughness give forgings a distinct advantage over products made by alternate methods. These properties are essential wherever safety is a concern. Current product liability actions are reinforcing the need to anticipate the unexpected, such as impact loads. They are especially important where failure can threaten the safety of the user. In those cases, the design must be such that any failure is progressive, and not sudden.

For example, wheel spindles for automobiles and trucks are subject to unpredictable damage from impacts. If a brittle fracture occurs, the operator will lose control of the vehicle, potentially resulting in a serious accident. A forged spindle, which has a high level of impact toughness, fracture toughness and high ductility at all anticipated operating temperatures, may undergo plastic deformation, but will remain partially operative to give reasonable insurance against loss of control.

Return to Table of Contents

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High ductility, impact toughness and fracture toughness give forgings a distinct advantage over products made by alternate methods. These properties are essential wherever safety is a concern. Current product liability actions are reinforcing the need to anticipate the unexpected, such as impact loads. They are especially important where failure can threaten the safety of the user. In those cases, the design must be such that any failure is progressive, and not sudden.

For example, wheel spindles for automobiles and trucks are subject to unpredictable damage from impacts. If a brittle fracture occurs, the operator will lose control of the vehicle, potentially resulting in a serious accident. A forged spindle, which has a high level of impact toughness, fracture toughness and high ductility at all anticipated operating temperatures, may undergo plastic deformation, but will remain partially operative to give reasonable insurance against loss of control.

Return to Table of Contents

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