2.4 Forming a Concurrent Engineering Team

A team consisting of the product designer, the purchasing manager and a quality control or manufacturing representative from the purchasing company and a technical representative of the forging company is a good starting point. This team is usually small enough to act quickly and large enough to assure the balanced input. Other team members may be added as the program develops.
The team effort is launched with a series of design conferences. Figure 2-2 is a checklist of information to be exchanged, most of which is originated by the purchaser. As the program proceeds, the forger will contribute in several areas. For example:

  1. Engineering Drawings The purchaser supplies engineering drawings of the finished part and sometimes the rough machined envelope; the forger usually submits drawings of the forging for approval.
  2. Tolerances The forger will indicate any limitations or improvements on the FIA guideline tolerances.
  3. Material and Heat Treatment The forging engineer should be encouraged to suggest alternate alloys and heat treatments to contain costs while maintaining product integrity.

As materials and process technologies advance, it is increasingly important for the product designer and purchaser to involve the forger in decisions that ultimately affect the cost and performance of the product. Close cooperation will yield the greatest benefits from forging industry innovation and can help spur further progress.

Table 2-3 Overview of Information Found in FIA's
Custom Forging Capability Guide

Process Alloy Group Size Quantities¹
Impression Die Ferrous
  Carbon
  Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys
Range of sizes by weight (Enables pre-selection of suppliers by product sizes, weights and alloys) Unlimited (300 or more typical)
Open Die

Ferrous
  Carbon or Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys

Shafts - Max Length
Discs - Max Diameter
Saddle/Mandrel rings -
Max. O.D. and
Max Length
1 or more
(up to 50 typical)
Rolled Rings Ferrous
  Carbon or Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys
Min I.D. and Max O.D²
Min. and Max. Weights
Min. and Max Heights
1 or more
(10 or more typical)
Cold Forging Ferrous
  Carbon
  Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Copper Base Alloys
Range of Sizes by Weight Usually more than 10,000

¹Can vary depending on alloy, design and capabilities of the forging company.
²The guide also indicates whether or not contours are available for rolled rings

Figure 2-2 Forging Design Conference Checklist

The following information should be exchanged between buyer and forger during conferences held prior to final design and specification of a forged part. This information is the key to identifying ways to improve part performance and reduce cost.

Identification

  • Name of component
  • Drawing number
  • Part number
  • Company name and address
  • Name and title of person initiating the inquiry or order
  • End use

Engineering drawing - forging print and machining prints

  • Name of component
  • Drawing number
  • Position of locating points and/or chucking bosses for subsequent machining operations
  • Surfaces to be machined and finish allowance desired
  • Type of finishing operation to be used
  • Location and nature of part numbers, trademarks and traceability codes (raised or indented numbers and letters)
  • Identification of drawing as to issue status or number
  • Test bar location or prolongation, analysis, and specification number
  • Heat treatment (if required)

Part Quantity/Weight

  • Total quantity/weight required (in pieces) for initial orders
  • Number of pieces/weight per release (if subject to release)
  • Estimated annual quantity/weight requirements
  • Any limitations on application of FIA quantity tolerances. (Special quantity tolerances are usually quoted separately)

Delivery Schedule

  • Initial delivery date and number of pieces
  • Subsequent schedule (pieces required per delivery - monthly, daily, weekly, etc.
  • Date order is to be completed

Machining and Options

  • Specify whether as-forged, forged and blasted, rough machined or finish machined and ready to install
  • Specify sub-assembly requirements

Service data

  • Maximum design stress
  • Description of stress in service (impact, cyclic loading or pressures)
  • Nature of wear or abrasion to be encountered
  • Operating environment (corrosive agents, maximum service temperatures)

Surface condition

  • Surfaces to be machined (marked on drawings)
  • Nature of finish (polish, plating, paint, other)
  • Whether alternate quotation is desired, with machining and other operations included

Material Composition and Qualitya

  • Metal by name, composition and specification
  • Alternate materials permitted

Properties

  • Standard specification that applies (additional requirements and/or exceptions)
  • Minimum tensile strength
  • Hardness (maximum and minimum specified locations
  • Other applicable properties

Heat treatmentb

  • Nature of heat treatment
  • Property levels required
  • Heat code marking system

Dimensional tolerances

  • Tolerance guidelines (FIA)c
  • Critical dimensions where special tolerances apply

Special inspection requirements

  • Inspection methods required (dye penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonic)
  • Customer's incoming inspection (complete, 100% statistical: average quality level AQL, or other)
  • Government agency inspection
  • First piece inspection samples required

Shipping

  • Special packaging specifications or crating requirements
  • Type or name of carrier preferred

Traceability

  • Lot code
  • Die ID
  • Heat code

Testing and inspectiond

aExpress as a simple statement of composition; as a standard AISI, ASTM or SAE classification; or as an industry, company, government or other specification. For additional information see Open Die Forging Technology, p133, Forging Industry Association, 1993.
bHeat treatments are specified by the purchaser in general terms, such as annealing, normalizing, or quenching. Specific processing details usually rest with the forging producer.
cSee Appendices A, B and C for industry guideline tolerances.
dThe  purchaser will normally specify the type of tests and acceptance levels required. Only those tests needed to establish the mechanical properties and quality necessary for reliable service performance should be specified.

Return to Table of Contents

array ( '#markup' => '

A team consisting of the product designer, the purchasing manager and a quality control or manufacturing representative from the purchasing company and a technical representative of the forging company is a good starting point. This team is usually small enough to act quickly and large enough to assure the balanced input. Other team members may be added as the program develops.
The team effort is launched with a series of design conferences. Figure 2-2 is a checklist of information to be exchanged, most of which is originated by the purchaser. As the program proceeds, the forger will contribute in several areas. For example:

  1. Engineering Drawings The purchaser supplies engineering drawings of the finished part and sometimes the rough machined envelope; the forger usually submits drawings of the forging for approval.
  2. Tolerances The forger will indicate any limitations or improvements on the FIA guideline tolerances.
  3. Material and Heat Treatment The forging engineer should be encouraged to suggest alternate alloys and heat treatments to contain costs while maintaining product integrity.

As materials and process technologies advance, it is increasingly important for the product designer and purchaser to involve the forger in decisions that ultimately affect the cost and performance of the product. Close cooperation will yield the greatest benefits from forging industry innovation and can help spur further progress.

Table 2-3 Overview of Information Found in FIA\'s
Custom Forging Capability Guide

Process Alloy Group Size Quantities¹
Impression Die Ferrous
  Carbon
  Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys
Range of sizes by weight (Enables pre-selection of suppliers by product sizes, weights and alloys) Unlimited (300 or more typical)
Open Die

Ferrous
  Carbon or Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys

Shafts - Max Length
Discs - Max Diameter
Saddle/Mandrel rings -
Max. O.D. and
Max Length
1 or more
(up to 50 typical)
Rolled Rings Ferrous
  Carbon or Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys
Min I.D. and Max O.D²
Min. and Max. Weights
Min. and Max Heights
1 or more
(10 or more typical)
Cold Forging Ferrous
  Carbon
  Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Copper Base Alloys
Range of Sizes by Weight Usually more than 10,000

¹Can vary depending on alloy, design and capabilities of the forging company.
²The guide also indicates whether or not contours are available for rolled rings

Figure 2-2 Forging Design Conference Checklist

The following information should be exchanged between buyer and forger during conferences held prior to final design and specification of a forged part. This information is the key to identifying ways to improve part performance and reduce cost.

Identification

  • Name of component
  • Drawing number
  • Part number
  • Company name and address
  • Name and title of person initiating the inquiry or order
  • End use

Engineering drawing - forging print and machining prints

  • Name of component
  • Drawing number
  • Position of locating points and/or chucking bosses for subsequent machining operations
  • Surfaces to be machined and finish allowance desired
  • Type of finishing operation to be used
  • Location and nature of part numbers, trademarks and traceability codes (raised or indented numbers and letters)
  • Identification of drawing as to issue status or number
  • Test bar location or prolongation, analysis, and specification number
  • Heat treatment (if required)

Part Quantity/Weight

  • Total quantity/weight required (in pieces) for initial orders
  • Number of pieces/weight per release (if subject to release)
  • Estimated annual quantity/weight requirements
  • Any limitations on application of FIA quantity tolerances. (Special quantity tolerances are usually quoted separately)

Delivery Schedule

  • Initial delivery date and number of pieces
  • Subsequent schedule (pieces required per delivery - monthly, daily, weekly, etc.
  • Date order is to be completed

Machining and Options

  • Specify whether as-forged, forged and blasted, rough machined or finish machined and ready to install
  • Specify sub-assembly requirements

Service data

  • Maximum design stress
  • Description of stress in service (impact, cyclic loading or pressures)
  • Nature of wear or abrasion to be encountered
  • Operating environment (corrosive agents, maximum service temperatures)

Surface condition

  • Surfaces to be machined (marked on drawings)
  • Nature of finish (polish, plating, paint, other)
  • Whether alternate quotation is desired, with machining and other operations included

Material Composition and Qualitya

  • Metal by name, composition and specification
  • Alternate materials permitted

Properties

  • Standard specification that applies (additional requirements and/or exceptions)
  • Minimum tensile strength
  • Hardness (maximum and minimum specified locations
  • Other applicable properties

Heat treatmentb

  • Nature of heat treatment
  • Property levels required
  • Heat code marking system

Dimensional tolerances

  • Tolerance guidelines (FIA)c
  • Critical dimensions where special tolerances apply

Special inspection requirements

  • Inspection methods required (dye penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonic)
  • Customer\'s incoming inspection (complete, 100% statistical: average quality level AQL, or other)
  • Government agency inspection
  • First piece inspection samples required

Shipping

  • Special packaging specifications or crating requirements
  • Type or name of carrier preferred

Traceability

  • Lot code
  • Die ID
  • Heat code

Testing and inspectiond

aExpress as a simple statement of composition; as a standard AISI, ASTM or SAE classification; or as an industry, company, government or other specification. For additional information see Open Die Forging Technology, p133, Forging Industry Association, 1993.
bHeat treatments are specified by the purchaser in general terms, such as annealing, normalizing, or quenching. Specific processing details usually rest with the forging producer.
cSee Appendices A, B and C for industry guideline tolerances.
dThe  purchaser will normally specify the type of tests and acceptance levels required. Only those tests needed to establish the mechanical properties and quality necessary for reliable service performance should be specified.

Return to Table of Contents

', '#printed' => true, '#type' => 'markup', '#pre_render' => array ( 0 => 'drupal_pre_render_markup', 1 => 'ctools_dependent_pre_render', ), '#children' => '

A team consisting of the product designer, the purchasing manager and a quality control or manufacturing representative from the purchasing company and a technical representative of the forging company is a good starting point. This team is usually small enough to act quickly and large enough to assure the balanced input. Other team members may be added as the program develops.
The team effort is launched with a series of design conferences. Figure 2-2 is a checklist of information to be exchanged, most of which is originated by the purchaser. As the program proceeds, the forger will contribute in several areas. For example:

  1. Engineering Drawings The purchaser supplies engineering drawings of the finished part and sometimes the rough machined envelope; the forger usually submits drawings of the forging for approval.
  2. Tolerances The forger will indicate any limitations or improvements on the FIA guideline tolerances.
  3. Material and Heat Treatment The forging engineer should be encouraged to suggest alternate alloys and heat treatments to contain costs while maintaining product integrity.

As materials and process technologies advance, it is increasingly important for the product designer and purchaser to involve the forger in decisions that ultimately affect the cost and performance of the product. Close cooperation will yield the greatest benefits from forging industry innovation and can help spur further progress.

Table 2-3 Overview of Information Found in FIA\'s
Custom Forging Capability Guide

Process Alloy Group Size Quantities¹
Impression Die Ferrous
  Carbon
  Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys
Range of sizes by weight (Enables pre-selection of suppliers by product sizes, weights and alloys) Unlimited (300 or more typical)
Open Die

Ferrous
  Carbon or Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys

Shafts - Max Length
Discs - Max Diameter
Saddle/Mandrel rings -
Max. O.D. and
Max Length
1 or more
(up to 50 typical)
Rolled Rings Ferrous
  Carbon or Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Cooper Base Alloys
  Magnesium
  Titanium
High Temperature
  Alloys
Min I.D. and Max O.D²
Min. and Max. Weights
Min. and Max Heights
1 or more
(10 or more typical)
Cold Forging Ferrous
  Carbon
  Alloy
  Stainless
Non-Ferrous
  Aluminum
  Copper Base Alloys
Range of Sizes by Weight Usually more than 10,000

¹Can vary depending on alloy, design and capabilities of the forging company.
²The guide also indicates whether or not contours are available for rolled rings

Figure 2-2 Forging Design Conference Checklist

The following information should be exchanged between buyer and forger during conferences held prior to final design and specification of a forged part. This information is the key to identifying ways to improve part performance and reduce cost.

Identification

  • Name of component
  • Drawing number
  • Part number
  • Company name and address
  • Name and title of person initiating the inquiry or order
  • End use

Engineering drawing - forging print and machining prints

  • Name of component
  • Drawing number
  • Position of locating points and/or chucking bosses for subsequent machining operations
  • Surfaces to be machined and finish allowance desired
  • Type of finishing operation to be used
  • Location and nature of part numbers, trademarks and traceability codes (raised or indented numbers and letters)
  • Identification of drawing as to issue status or number
  • Test bar location or prolongation, analysis, and specification number
  • Heat treatment (if required)

Part Quantity/Weight

  • Total quantity/weight required (in pieces) for initial orders
  • Number of pieces/weight per release (if subject to release)
  • Estimated annual quantity/weight requirements
  • Any limitations on application of FIA quantity tolerances. (Special quantity tolerances are usually quoted separately)

Delivery Schedule

  • Initial delivery date and number of pieces
  • Subsequent schedule (pieces required per delivery - monthly, daily, weekly, etc.
  • Date order is to be completed

Machining and Options

  • Specify whether as-forged, forged and blasted, rough machined or finish machined and ready to install
  • Specify sub-assembly requirements

Service data

  • Maximum design stress
  • Description of stress in service (impact, cyclic loading or pressures)
  • Nature of wear or abrasion to be encountered
  • Operating environment (corrosive agents, maximum service temperatures)

Surface condition

  • Surfaces to be machined (marked on drawings)
  • Nature of finish (polish, plating, paint, other)
  • Whether alternate quotation is desired, with machining and other operations included

Material Composition and Qualitya

  • Metal by name, composition and specification
  • Alternate materials permitted

Properties

  • Standard specification that applies (additional requirements and/or exceptions)
  • Minimum tensile strength
  • Hardness (maximum and minimum specified locations
  • Other applicable properties

Heat treatmentb

  • Nature of heat treatment
  • Property levels required
  • Heat code marking system

Dimensional tolerances

  • Tolerance guidelines (FIA)c
  • Critical dimensions where special tolerances apply

Special inspection requirements

  • Inspection methods required (dye penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonic)
  • Customer\'s incoming inspection (complete, 100% statistical: average quality level AQL, or other)
  • Government agency inspection
  • First piece inspection samples required

Shipping

  • Special packaging specifications or crating requirements
  • Type or name of carrier preferred

Traceability

  • Lot code
  • Die ID
  • Heat code

Testing and inspectiond

aExpress as a simple statement of composition; as a standard AISI, ASTM or SAE classification; or as an industry, company, government or other specification. For additional information see Open Die Forging Technology, p133, Forging Industry Association, 1993.
bHeat treatments are specified by the purchaser in general terms, such as annealing, normalizing, or quenching. Specific processing details usually rest with the forging producer.
cSee Appendices A, B and C for industry guideline tolerances.
dThe  purchaser will normally specify the type of tests and acceptance levels required. Only those tests needed to establish the mechanical properties and quality necessary for reliable service performance should be specified.

Return to Table of Contents

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